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Goddess Wisdom Made Easy: Connect to the Power of the Sacred Feminine through Ancient Teachings and Practices

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Some of the archaeological evidence present in Bath leads scholars to believe that it was thought Minerva could provide full healing from things such as rheumatism via the hot springs if she was given full credit for the healing. [23] www.wisdomlib.org (27 September 2020). "Concerning the Penances practised by Dashagriva and his Brother [Chapter 10]". www.wisdomlib.org . Retrieved 9 August 2022. Cavanagh, Terry (1997). Public sculpture of Liverpool. Liverpool University Press. pp.70–1. ISBN 9780853237112. During the Navaratri festivities, on the seventh day, which coincides with the Moola nakshatra (which is considered to be the goddess' birth star), the goddesses of various temples are decorated and worshipped in the form of Mahasaraswati, in honour of the goddess of knowledge, wisdom, arts, and learning. Students throng these temples in large numbers and receive books, pencils, pens, and other learning equipments as "Devi prasadam". "Aksharabhyasa", the ceremony of initiating a child into the process of learning, is held on a large scale across these temples. [ citation needed] In east and northeast India Saraswati Puja preparations in Bangladesh Saraswati statue in Central Kolkata, 2011.

A statue of Minerva is the center of the Pioneer Monument in San Francisco's Civic Center created by Frank Happersberger in 1894. Saraswati also became associated with the Tibetan deity Palden Lhamo (Glorious Goddess) who is a fierce protector deity in the Gelugpa tradition known as Magzor Gyalmo (the Queen who Repels Armies). [147] Saraswati was the yidam (principal personal meditational deity) of 14th century Tibetan monk Je Tsongkhapa, who composed a devotional poem to her. [148] [149] In early texts like the Rigveda, Saraswati was a river goddess and the personification of the Sarasvati river. [80] As a river goddess, she represented fertility and purity. [80] There are three hymns in the Rigveda which are dedicated to the Sarasvati River. [81] A Rigvedic prayer also describes her as 'the best of mothers, of rivers and of goddesses'. [81] In the Tiruvalluva Maalai, a collection of fifty-five Tamil verses praising the Kural literature and its author Valluvar, she is referred to as Nāmagal and is believed to have composed the second verse. [18] [19] The goddess is mentioned in many Rigvedic hymns, and has three hymns dedicated to her (6:61 exclusively, and 7:95-96 which she shares with her male counterpart, Sarasvant). [21] In Rigveda 2.41.16 she is called: "Best of mothers, the best of rivers, best of goddesses". [24]


The name Minerva stems from Proto-Italic * meneswo ("intelligent, understanding"), and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) * menos ("thought"). Helmut Rix (1981) and Gerhard Meiser (1998) have proposed the PIE derivative * menes-ueh₂ ("provided with a mind, intelligent") as the transitional form. [8] Origin [ edit ] In the Brahmanas, Saraswati-Vac's role expands, becoming clearly identified with knowledge (which is what is communicated through speech) and as such, she is "the mother of the Vedas" as well as the Vedas themselves. [34] The Shatapatha Brahmana states that "as all waters meet in the ocean...so all sciences (vidya) unite (ekayanam) in Vāc" (14:5:4:11). [35] The Shatapatha Brahmana also presents Vāc as a secondary creator deity, having been the first deity created by the creator god Prajapati. She is the very instrument by which he created the world, flowing forth from him "ike a continuous stream of water" according to the scripture. [36] This is the basis for the Puranic stories about the relationship between Brahma (identified with Prajapati) and Saraswati (identified with Vāc). [37] According to the Devi Mahatmya, this supreme goddess is the primordial creator which is supreme formless (nirguna) consciousness (i.e. parabrahman, absolute reality) and the tridevi are her main saguna ("with form", manifest, incarnated) emanations. [66] Mahasaraswati is said to be creative and active principle (which is Rajasic, energetic and active), while Mahalakshmi is the sustainer ( sattvic, "goodness") and Mahakali is the destroyer ( tamasic, "darkness"). [66] Hunúŋpa, Lakota bear spirit of wóksape (Lakota concept of sacred knowledge), lesser spirit of knowledge

Arthur Anthony Macdonell (1978). Vedic Mythology. Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint). ISBN 978-81-208-1113-3.

Who is Snotra?

On Saraswati day, people make offerings in the form of flowers in temples and to sacred texts. The day after Saraswati day, is Banyu Pinaruh, a day of cleansing. On this day, Hindus of Bali go to the sea, sacred waterfalls or river spots, offer prayers to Saraswati, and then rinse themselves in that water in the morning. Then they prepare a feast, such as the traditional bebek betutu and nasi kuning, that they share. [105] A bronze statue of Minerva stands in Monument Square (Portland, Maine). "Our Lady of Victories Monument" dedicated in 1891, features a 14-feet-tall bronze figure by Franklin Simmons atop a granite pedestal with smaller bronze sculptures by Richard Morris Hunt. [30] [31] The Mahabharata also commonly presents her as a goddess of knowledge in her own right and sees Vac as merely a feature of hers. [49] She is called the mother of the Vedas in the Shanti Parva Book of the epic. [13] Her beauty is also widely commented on by numerous passages and in one passage, the goddess herself states that her knowledge and her beauty arise from gifts made in the sacrifice. [50] The Mahabharata also describes her as the daughter of the creator god Brahma. [51] Later she is describes as the celestial creative symphony who appeared when Brahma created the universe. [13] In other Rigvedic passages, Saraswati is praised as a mighty and unconquerable protector deity. She is offered praises and compared to a sheltering tree in Rigveda 7.95.5, while in 6:49:7cd she is said to provide "protection which is difficult to assail." [38] [39] In some passages she even takes a fiercesome appearance and is called a "slayer of strangers" who is called on to "guard her devotees against slander". [40] Her association with the combative storm gods called Maruts is related to her fierce fighting aspect and they are said to be her companions (at Rigveda 7:96:2c.). [41] Werness, Hope B. (2007). Animal Symbolism in World Art. Continuum Encyclopedia. Bloomsbury Academic. pp.319–320. ISBN 978-0826419132.

During the Roman occupation of Britain, it was common for carpenters to own tools ornamented with images of Minerva to invoke a greater amount of protection from the goddess of crafts. Some women would also have images of her on accessories such as hairpins or jewellery. She was even featured on some funerary art on coffins and signet rings. [23] Bath [ edit ] a b c d e f Kinsley, David (1988). Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the divine feminine in the Hindu religious traditions. University of California Press. pp. 55–64. ISBN 0-520063392. a b c d e Bulfinch, Thomas. (2010). The Age of Fable, or Stories of Gods and Heroes. Neeland Media LLC. ISBN 978-1-59625-257-8. OCLC 1028955021. She is generally shown to have four arms, but sometimes just two. When shown with four hands, those hands symbolically mirror her husband Brahma's four heads, representing manas (mind, sense), buddhi (intellect, reasoning), citta (imagination, creativity), and ahamkāra (self consciousness, ego). [75] [76] Brahma represents the abstract, while she represents action and reality.Whapiya/ Wóhpe, Lakota spirit of knowledge, wishes, dreams, visions, prophecy and the wife of Okaga the south wind Tsongkhapa, Je (24 March 2015). Prayer to Sarasvati. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780861717705– via Google Books. a b Balf, Edward (1885). The Encyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. p.534 – via Google Books. The Seal of California depicts the Goddess Minerva. Her birth fully-grown parallels California becoming a state without first being a territory. [25] In Book 2 of Taittiriya Brahmana, Saraswati is called "the mother of eloquent speech and melodious music". [16] Epic literature

According to Catherine Ludvik, Saraswati's earliest appearance in a Buddhist text is in the 1st century CE Mahayana Golden Light Sutra (of which there are different versions / translations). This text is first attested in a Chinese translation in 417 CE and includes an entire chapter devoted to the goddess, which is our best source for the earliest Buddhist depictions of Saraswati. [111] In the Golden Light Sutra A Japanese depiction of Saraswati as a protector deity with eight arms holding various weapons (c. 1212), University Art Museum, Tokyo University of the Arts. Bhattacharyya, Benoytosh (1924). The Indian Buddhist Iconography Mainly Based on the Sādhanamālā and Other Cognate Tāntric Texts of Rituals, pp. 151-152. Oxford University Press. In Tantric Shakta sources, Saraswati takes many forms. A key tantric form is Matangi, a deity considered to be the "Tantric Saraswati". Mātaṅgī retains many attributes of Saraswati, like music and learning, but is also associated with defeating enemies, disease, pollution/impurity, and outcasts ( chandalas). [67] She is often offered half eaten or leftover food and is green in color. Matangi is also part of the Shakta set of goddesses known as the ten Mahavidyas. In various Indian tantric sadhanas to Saraswati (which only survive in Tibetan translation), her bija (seed) mantra is Hrīḥ. [136] Nepalese Buddhism Minerva ( / m ə ˈ n ɜːr v ə/; Latin: [mɪˈnɛru̯ä]; Etruscan: Menrva) is the Roman goddess of wisdom, justice, law, victory, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. Minerva is not a patron of violence such as Mars, but of strategic war. [2] From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena. [3] Minerva is one of the three Roman deities in the Capitoline Triad, along with Jupiter and Juno.In some interpretations, "Sara" is translated as "Essence", and "Sva" is translated to "Self". Thus, the name Saraswati would translate to "She who helps realize the essence of self" or "She who reconciles the essence (of Parabrahman) with one's self". Matangi is important in Shri Vidya Shaktism, where she is also known as the dark blue Shyamala ("dark in complexion") and is a manifestation of Lalita Tripurasundari's Jñana Shakti (wisdom power), having arisen out of Lalita's sugarcane bow. [68] She is celebrated in the holiday Syamala Navaratri and is seen as Lalita's prime minister. There are various chants and odes ( stotras) to this deity, perhaps the most important being the Śrī Śyāmalā Daṇḍakam by the great Indian Sanskrit poet Kalidasa. [69] [70] Other Hindu sources In Jainism Saraswati Pata. The painting is divided into nine parts. In three central panels a temple enshrining Saraswati and her vahana, Hamsa, are depicted. Other panels are filled with attendants, musicians, dancers and Jain monks. Jain style, Gujarat, 1475–1500. National Museum, New Delhi. According to the Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra (c. 4th century - 5th century CE. ), Saraswati was born from the eyetooth of Avalokiteshvara. [128] Kinsley, David (1988). Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the divine feminine in the Hindu religious traditions. University of California Press. p.95. ISBN 0-520-06339-2– via Google Books.

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