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Star images 55062 du Replica Stunt Puppet, Multi-Colored, 12 inches

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Jones, N.J.E., Ridgway, I.D. & Richardson, C.A., 2009. Transport of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, eggs under dry and damp conditions. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 75, 192-194. Von Boletzky, S., 1974. Effets de la sous-nutrition prolongée sur le développement de la coquille de Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France, 99, 667-673. Jozet-Alves, C., Bertin, M. & Clayton, N.S., 2013. Evidence of episodic-like memory in cuttlefish. Current Biology, 23, R1033-R1035. Häfker, N.S. 2012.Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on blood and tissue physiology of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Masters thesis.Universtität Bremen.

Blanc, A., du Sel, G.P. & Daguzan, J., 1999. Relationships between length of prey/predator for the most important prey of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Malacologia, 41(1), 139-145. Adults have a more linear growth rate (Challier et al., 2005) that almost ceases during winter migration to colder offshore waters (Dunn, 1999). The growth rate of Sepia officinalis decreases continuously with an increase in size (Domingues et al., 2001). A maximum lifespan of two years is common with the exception of some individuals reaching four years of age in culture (Bettencourt & Guerra, 1999). In areas of higher temperatures, such as the Portuguese coast, the time taken to reach sexual maturity is far less compared to English, colder, waters. This results in a reduced lifespan of one year (Gras et al., 2016). Hochberg. F. G.,1990. Diseases caused by protistans and metazoans. In Kinne:Diseases of Marine Animals. Vol III. Diseases of Mollusca: Cephalopoda, Hamburg: pp. 47-202. du Sel, G.P. & Daguzan, J., 1997. A note on sex ratio, length and diet of a population of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) sampled by three fishing methods. Fisheries Research, 32(2), 191-195. Pierce, G.J., Boyle, P.R., Hastie, L.C. & Shanks, A.M., 1994. Distribution and abundance of the fished population of Loligo forbesii in UK waters: analysis of fishery data. Special Issue: Fishery Biology of Northeast Atlantic Squid, Fisheries Issue, 21, 193-216.

Note: Before starting 3D printing the model, read the Printing Details for CURA 3.4.1. or Simplify3DSoftware. Fungal infections can appear on Sepia officinalis but these are usually the result of trauma to the skin or a weakening of the immune system (Harms et al., 2006). Cells known as ovoid cells in the heart tissue are known to target bacterial toxins in the blood. This shows a strong immune response to microbial infection and suggests a tolerance to them (Beuerlin & Schipp, 1998).

Camouflage ability.One of the primary defence mechanisms against potential predators is to camouflage and stay hidden. Sepia officinalis, amongst other cephalopod species, are able to undergo countershading. This behaviour means that if an individual is rotated 90 degrees their chromophores expand and contract accordingly to make sure the underside of the body is now the colour of the upper half and vice versa. This allows the cuttlefish to remain camouflaged and prevents it from being conspicuous (Ferguson et al., 1994). Cuttlefish are able to scale the intensity of their body patterning depending on the light intensity surrounding them. This is thought to allow them to conserve energy (Buresch et al., 2015). In extremely low light conditions Sepia officinalis does not appear to camouflage to the substratum (Buresch et al., 2015). Bouchaud, O., 1991. Energy consumption of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) during embryonic development, preliminary results. Bulletin of Marine Science, 49, 333-340. Castro, B.G. & Guerra, A., 1990. The diet of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sepia elegans (D'Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda, Sepioidea) from the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain). Scientia Marina, 54(4), 375-388.


Frank, M.G., Waldrop, R.H., Dumoulin, M., Aton, S. & Boal, J.G., 2012. A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. PLoS ONE, 7, e38125. Blanc, A. & Daguzan, J., 1999. Young cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Sepiidae) in the Morbihan Bay (south Brittany, France): accessory prey of predators. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 79, 1133-1134.

The statocyst is considered the primary sound detection organ in cephalopods. Alongside peripheral hairs and epidermal hairs, Sepia officinalis is able to detect local water movement by detecting vibrations (Hanlon & Messenger, 1996; Samson et al., 2014). The statocyst is also responsive for equilibrium and movement in the water column (Solé et al., 2017). Soliman, A.M., Fahmy, S.R., Sayed, A.A. & Abd El-Latif, A.A., 2016. New insights into sepsis therapy using Sepia Officinalis. Jundishapur journal of microbiology, 9 Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) records for Great Britain and Ireland. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/aurwcz accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25. Benchmark.Damage to surface features (e.g. species and physical structures within the habitat). Further detail Challier, L., Dunn, M.R., & Robin, J.-P., 2005. Trends in age-at-recruitment and juvenile growth of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, from the English Channel. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62, 1671-1682.Disclaimer: This model will look outstanding if printed on SLA/SLS 3D printer. The accuracy of the model printed on FFF printer can vary from the result shown in the pictures. Simplify3D printing recommendations: Wolfram, K., Mark, F.C., John, U., Lucassen, M. & Pörtner, H.O., 2006. Microsatellite DNA variation indicates low levels of genetic differentiation among cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis L.) populations in the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics, 1, 375-383. Sherrill, J., Spelman, L.H., Reidel, C.L. & Montali, R.J., 2000. Common cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) mortality at the national zoological park: Implications for clinical management. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 31, 523-531. Gestal, C., Guerra, A., Pascual, S. & Azevedo, C., 2002. On the life cycle of Aggregata eberthi and observations on Aggregata octopiana (Apicomplexa, Aggregatidae) from Galicia (NE Atlantic). European Journal of Protistology, 37, 427-435. Guerra, A. & Castro, B., 1988. On the life cycle of Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda, Sepioidea) in the ria de Vigo (NW Spain). Muelle de Bouzas, 29, 395-405.

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