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Reflective Road Line Car Park Marking Paint (2.5 Litre, White)

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Itoh Y, Inoue M, Rii T, Hirota K, Hirakata A. Correlation between foveal cone outer segment tips line and visual recovery after epiretinal membrane surgery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:7302–8. Council MD, Shah GK, Lee HC, Sharma S. Visual outcomes and complications of epiretinal membrane removal secondary to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1218–21. Miguel AI, Legris A. Prognostic factors of epiretinal membranes: a systematic review. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2017;40:61–79. You Q, Xu L, Jonas JB. Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in adult Chinese: the Beijing eye study. Eye. 2008;22:874–9.

Reflective symmetry is where a shape or pattern is reflected in a mirror line or a line of symmetry. The shape that has been reflected will be the same as the original, it should also be the same size and it will be the same distance away from the mirror. What is Rotational symmetry? Jahn CE, Minich V, Moldaschel S, Stahl B, Jedelhauser P, Kremer G, et al. Epiretinal membranes after extracapsular cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2001;27:753–60.

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The presence of microcystoid retinal changes or the cotton ball sign had no significant effect on BCVA ( p = 0.548 and 0.861, respectively). However, eyes with EIFL or disruption of the ellipsoid zone were associated with significantly higher BCVA values in logMAR ( p< 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively) (Table 2). In addition to EIFL, frequency of cystoid macular changes, ellipsoid disruption, and the cotton ball sign significantly increased from stage 1 through stage 4 in the study by Govetto et al. [ 22]. Similarly, in our study, the rate of cystoid changes, cotton ball sign, and disruption of the ellipsoid zone increased with increasing stage of ERM. However, whereas neither the presence of cystoid changes nor the cotton ball sign had a significant effect on BCVA, disruption of the ellipsoid zone was associated with significantly higher BCVA values in logMAR. On the other hand, none of these SD-OCT findings were found to be an independent predictor of visual acuity in a multivariate linear regression model. In eyes with ERM, disruption of the ellipsoid zone has been reported to be negatively correlated with visual outcomes in multiple studies [ 14, 31]. However, in our study, we did not find a correlation between disruption of the ellipsoid zone and visual acuity, probably due to the small number of patients with ellipsoid zone disruption. You will also see these across many other types of roads to show the boundaries of driving lanes. Fluorescent Green and Yellow Studs Mori K, Gehlbach PL, Sano A, Deguchi T, Yoneya S. Comparison of epiretinal membranes of differing pathogenesis using optical coherence tomography. Retina. 2004;24:57–62.

If you'd like to learn more about rotational symmetry, then you might like this Rotational Symmetry Worksheet. What is a Line of symmetry? Students going into Year 5 will be taught how to reflect shapes and patterns using an axis - they may be given half of the shape and to draw the other or, given the full shape and asked to reflect it over onto the other side. Use these differentiated worksheets to help your children develop their understanding of how to draw a shape reflected in a horizontal or vertical mirror line. Watanabe K, Tsunoda K, Mizuno Y, Akiyama K, Noda T. Outer retinal morphology and visual function in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:172–7.In addition to helping drivers stay in the correct lane and spot upcoming bends, reflective studs can also help to reduce the risk of accidents. By providing an increased level of visibility, these studs can help drivers to spot any potential hazards before they reach them, allowing them to take the necessary precautions. Vieira LM, Silva NF, Dias dos Santos AM, dos Anjos RS, Pinto LA, Vicente AR, et al. Retinal ganglion cell layer analysis by optical coherence tomography in toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2015;35:242–5. Kauffmann Y, Ramel JC, Lefebvre A, Isaico R, De Lazzer A, Bonnabel A, et al. Preoperative prognostic factors and predictive score in patients operated on for combined cataract and idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015;160:185–92. Ng CH, Cheung N, Wang JJ, Islam AF, Kawasaki R, Meuer SM, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for epiretinal membranes in a multi - ethnic United States population. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:694–9. Okamoto F, Sugiura Y, Okamoto Y, Hiraoka T, Oshika T. Time course of changes in aniseikonia and foveal microstructure after vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:2255–60.

Uji A, Murakami T, Unoki N, Ogino K, Nishijima K, Yoshitake S, et al. Parallelism as a novel marker for structural integrity of retinal layers in optical coherence tomographic images in eyes with epiretinal membrane. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157:227–36. This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 242 consecutive eyes of 121 patients (mean age: 69.7 ± 7.3 years, male to female ratio: 62:59) with unilateral idiopathic ERM were evaluated in a single institution between December 2016 and December 2017. The exclusion criteria were secondary ERM (due to diabetic retinopathy, venous occlusion, retinal tear, retinal detachment, uveitis, trauma); eyes with pseudoholes, lamellar holes, or opaque media; glaucoma; history of intraocular surgery (except uncomplicated cataract surgery); uncontrolled diabetes or hypertension; coexisting age-related macular degeneration; nicotine abuse; and refractive errors above −2 and +2 diopters. Govetto A, Su D, Farajzadeh M, Megerdichian A, Platner E, Ducournau Y, et al. Microcystoid macular changes in association with idiopathic epiretinal membranes in eyes with and without glaucoma: clinical insights. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;181:156–65. Alternatively, these are one of the least common reflective studs that can be seen on the motorway.Kinoshita T, Kovacs KD, Wagley S, Arroyo JG. Morphologic differences in epiretinal membranes on ocular coherence tomography as a predictive factor for surgical outcome. Retina. 2011;31:1692–8. Another important reason for using reflective studs on motorways is to help drivers spot upcoming changes in the road, so that they can adjust accordingly. For precise qualitative and quantitative analyses, all parameters were measured separately and independently by two retina specialists (SD, MAS) who were masked to the patients’ clinical details. If there were any discrepancies in the measurement of qualitative parameters, another investigator (PY) was consulted for the final decision. Statistical analysis Gass JDM. Macular dysfunction caused by epiretinal membrane contraction. In: Stereoscopic atlas of macular diseases: diagnosis and treatment. Vol. 2, 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1997, p. 938–950.

For an art activity using mirrors, children might also get a lot out of this Frida Kahlo Inspired Self-Portrait Activity. Following her accident, Frida’s scope of vision was limited from where she lay in bed, so she requested a mirror be placed on the ceiling over her. This way, she could see herself and draw and paint lots of self-portraits. Fraser-Bell S, Guzowski M, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Mitchell P. Five-year cumulative incidence and progression of epiretinal membranes: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:34–40. Kim JH, Kim YM, Chung EJ, Lee SY, Koh HJ. Structural and functional predictors of visual outcome of epiretinal membrane surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153:103–10. Symmetry Children will not learn the concept of symmetry until it is introduced to them in Year 2. They will be asked to identify line symmetry with a verticle line.

This is especially important in areas with a high speed limit, as drivers may not have time to react to sudden changes in the road if they don’t spot them in time. The reflective studs help drivers to spot these changes in the road ahead and adjust their speed accordingly. Epiretinal membranes (ERMs) are avascular fibrous layers characterized by abnormal fibrocellular proliferation on the inner retinal surface with a prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 28.9%, and they are more common in elderly people [ 1, 2, 3, 4]. ERM involving the macular or peri-macular regions can cause visual impairment, metamorphopsia, micropsia, and occasionally monocular diplopia. Although ERMs may develop secondary to cataract surgery, retinal detachment, retinal vein occlusions, diabetic retinopathy, or uveitis and retinal tearing, most cases are idiopathic [ 5, 6, 7]. Tsunoda K, Watanabe K, Akiyama K, Usui T, Noda T. Highly reflective foveal region in optical coherence tomography in eyes with vitreomacular traction or epiretinal membrane. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:581–7. Govetto A, Virgili G, Rodriguez FJ, Figueroa MS, Sarraf D, Hubschman JP. Functional and anatomical significance of the ectopic inner foveal layers in eyes with idiopathic epiretinal membranes: surgical results at 12 months. Retina. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000001940.

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